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Sunday, September 14, 2014

CHAPTER III: Israeli Transgressions against Palestinian Sports: after the 2nd phase of the FIFA Task Force Mechanism

CHAPTER III: Israeli Transgressions against Palestinian Sports: after the 2nd phase of the FIFA Task Force Mechanism


The 2nd phase of the FIFA Task Force mechanism, an attempt by FIFA to ease the suffering of Palestinian football,was started after the FIFA 64th Congress in Sao Paulo, in June 2014. The FIFA congress had heard the report of FIFA President Sepp Blatter on the mechanism launched in the FIFA 63rd congress (involving both the Palestine and Israel Associations), and had unanimously voted in a proposal by the President to develop the mechanism and try to fix its many shortcomings.

This report details the Israeli transgressions after that period:


  •   On Friday, the 20th of June 2014, around 16h00, an Israeli Army Force forcibly broke into Shabab Al-Khalil professional club. The force beat up the employees who were there at the time, confiscated the computers, destroyed the furniture, and shot live bullets in the corridors and at the windows.









  •    On Wednesday, the 9th of July 2014 Israeli bombardment killed 8 Palestinian young men in Khan Younis/Gaza.  The victims were watching the semi-final world cup match -between Argentina And the Netherlands- among dozens of others, in a coffee shop named “Waqt Al-Marah” (Fun time), located on the beach, when the coffee shop was targeted by what eye witnesses said to be two Israeli rockets, while a nearby coffee shop was being shelled by Israeli navy boats.

These men were:

  1.           Ibrahim Khalil Qannan, 24 years old.
  2.           Mohammad Khalil Qannan, 26 years old.
  3.           Hamdi Badee’Sawali, 33 years old.
  4.           Ibrahim Badee’Sawali, 28 years old.
  5.           Sulaiman Al-Astal, 55 years old.
  6.           Ahmad Al-Astal
  7.           Mousa Al-Astal
  8.           Mohammad Al-Aqqad, 24 years old
           A police officer named Wael Soboh, said the men had just had their    Iftar meal, and were watching the game when the shelling started.       “This is not a military zone”, he added. Other eye witnesses said           that a fire broke out in the coffee shop after the shelling, and that 9       of the 9 died immediately. Nothing was left from the coffee shop,           which was turned into a smoking pit, safe for heaps of debris, and         the name sign of the place.





       A survivor from the bombing, named Mohammad Aqqad said tha many people come here because the electricity is often down in Khan Younis, due to Israeli bombardment, and this place had a TV screen and a a power generator. “They were all football fans” he said.




    • On  July 9, 2014, player Bashar Ahmed, who played for Khadamat Jabalia FC, was killed in the Israeli bombardment of Jabalia. Bashar was a promising player known for his compassion and good manners.






    • On July 13, 2014, Israeli air strikes killed the Technical Director and Board Member of Al-Tuffah FC, Ahmad Dalou

    It maybe worth mentioning that one Israeli airstrikes have killed 14 members of the Dalou family while they were hudled together in their home, most of whom were children.







    • On 14 July, 2014, the Goal Keeper of Al-Tuffah FC, Ahmad Salah Abu Sidou, 17 years old, was killed during the Israeli artillery random bombardment of Al-Tuffah neigbourhood, in Gaza. Ahmad played in the 2nd team, and was a candidate to the senior team for the talent he displayed in local competitions.




    • On Tuesday July 15, 2014, Al-Zaytun Club senior player, Mohammad Al-Zamli was killed during an Israeli air strike on the residential area in which he lives in east Rafah.







    • On 15 July 2014Mohammad Abu Bei’dh, the mid-field star of Al-Daraj FC, lost his left leg as a result of a shrapnel that hit him during the Israel bombardment of Al-Shajaiyeh area in Gaza. He was rushed to the hospital but the doctors there had to amputate his leg, since it was beyond repair. Mohammad has been a player for the last 12 years, and now, he will never play football again.






    •   On the 16th of July, 2014, Four young boys – members of the same family – playing football on the beach were killed by what witnesses confirm was gunfire from Israeli warships carrying out a blockade of Gaza. According to the “the independent”, and to the footage in the French video of the incident, the attack on the fishing port in Gaza City came at just after four o’clock on a sunny and clear afternoon with good visibility. The group of cousins, aged between nine and 11, were playing football, according to witnesses, when a shell from the direction of the sea hit, and they started to run. Three of them made it to a close by hotel, were some journalist staying there gave them first aid. The four others were not that lucky; one died at the scene, and the other three at the hospital.





    The victims, who were the sons of a fisherman, were:  Ismael                Mohammed Bakr, 9 years old., Zakaria Ahed Bakr and Ahed Atif           Bakr, both 10, and Mohammed Ramiz Bakr, 11 years old.


    •    On the 19th of July, 2014, Israeli Police Forces, who had broken into the vicinity of Al-Aqsa Mosque, beat up referee Saadi Abu Sneineh, causing him a head injury.

      •          On the 30th of July, 2014, at about 10h300, the former head coach of the Palestine National team Mr. A’aed Zaqqut was killed during an Israeli airstrikes that hit his apartment in Al-Nasr/Gaza. Several projectiles fell on the apartment and he one of which caused his instant death. Zaqqut has been a prominent mid-fielder in the 80s an 90s, and has worn the colors of the Palestine national team in many competitions. He had coached more than one first-class club senior teams in Gaza since he quit playing, among which are Al-Hilal club, Gaza Al-Riyadi, Shajaiyeh, and Khadamat Al-Shatii’

      •    On 21st of July, around 14h30,  Israeli artillery, located east of the Governorate of Deir-Albalah/Gaza, shelled  Shuhada Al-Aqsa  hospital killing many civilians, among whom was   Alaa Abu Dahrooj, a player in Deir Al-Balah club  born 1998.







      •       On 26 July 2014, Israeli forces kidnapped Mohammad Abu Rida, who plays for Shabab Khan Younis FC, during the Israeli incursion in the area of Khaza’a.  Mohammad and the other citizens, who were kidnapped as well, were tortured by their captors,  before they were released.


      •    On the 30th of July, 2014, at about 10h30, the former head coach of the Palestine National team Mr. A’aed Zaqqut was killed during an Israeli airstrikes that hit his apartment in Al-Nasr/Gaza. Several projectiles fell on the apartment and he one of which caused his instant death. Zaqqut has been a prominent mid-fielder in the 80s an 90s, and has worn the colors of the Palestine national team in many competitions. He had coached more than one first-class club senior teams in Gaza since he quit playing, among which are Al-Hilal club, Gaza Al-Riyadi, Shajaiyeh, and Khadamat Al-Shatii’



      • On 30 July 2014, The Palestine Football Association’s Vice President, Ibrahim Abu Salim, miraculously survived the Israeli artillery bombardment of his house. Israeli artillery had been shelling the area where he lives in Gaza, and he got injured in the head and back by shrapnel.





      • On 30 July 2014, former referee Bahaa Al-Gharib and his 16 years old daughter , Ola, were killed in an Israeli airstrike on Rafah. Bahaa had been a referee in the 70s and 80s, and has been working as director of Hebrew news in the Palestine Broadcasting Corporation.




      •   On 1 August 2014, Israeli soldiers shot player Oda’i Nafez Jaber, 19 years old, in the village of Safa, west of Ramallah. Odai was shot by 3 bullets which killed him instantly. Oda’i played for Beit Ur, and Kharbatha FCs, and was about to sign a contract with a professional club had the bullets of the Israeli soldiers not found him.







      • On the 8th of August, 2014, player Mahmoud Farahat, player in Tal Al-Sultan club in Rafah/Gaza was killed during the Israeli bombardment of Rafah.





      •    On the 9th of August, 2014, Israeli airstrikes destroyed the house of Abdullah Salameh, a key player in the Palestinian Beach Soccer National Team.



        •    On 7 August 2014, Israeli airstrikes caused severe damage in the Palestine Football Association HQ in Beit Lahia/Gaza. This was not the first time the building, a FIFA Goal Project, got shelled.



        •   On 8 August 2014, Israeli soldiers shot Al-Amaari club former player, Mohammad Al-Qatri, 19 years old, as he was protesting the Israeli atrocities in Gaza, from close range. The soldiers prevented Palestinian Ambulances from reaching him, leaving him bleeding where he was shot, which caused his death. Mohammad has been working in the Joseph Blatter Academy since he quit playing. He was admired and loved by everyone who worked with him.

        Mohammad Al-Qatri gets a firm handshake from Sepp Blatter

        Mohammad Al-Qatri, 19 - Killed by Israeli soldiers near the colony of Bsagot

        Former Women's National Team player, Hamama Jorban says her goodbyes to Mohammad

        • On 10 August 2014, an Israeli airstrike destroyed Al-Ribat FC HQ, located in Al-Nuseirat refugee camp, in Gaza.


        • On 12 Friday 2014,  FIFA International referee Farouq Assi was detained for more than 4 hours by the Israeli army, as he was on his way to officiate in an official league match. Referee Assi was driving his private car, a white VolksWagen Caddy, with referees Muath Samahah (from Ein Seinya), Mohammad Nasser (From Saffa), and Ali Alawi (from Deir jreer) heading to Jericho to officiate in a semi-professional league match between Hilal Areeha FC and Beit Ummar FC,  which was scheduled at 18h00 on the same day.  Assi and his fellow referees arrived at the Silwad checkpoint early at around 15h30. Their vehicle was the first in line when the stone throwing at the soldiers started.  All vehicles were denied crossing the checkpoint  and were detained there until 17h00. When Assi and his friends tried to move the car out of the line of fire and stones, turning the car on the location, the soldiers got them out of the car, confiscated the keys, and manhandled Assi, kicked him around, and put him in a corner, blindfolded, with his hands tied behind his back. 

        video











        • On November 2014, a reportedly joint force of Israeli Police and intelligence broke into Burj Al-Luqluq Social Center, located in the Old City of Jerusalem, where they conducted a two-hour search that wrought havoc all over the place.According to Mr. Muntasir Idkaidik, the executive manager of the Centre, the Israeli armed force also broke into the kindergarten, where 40 children were having a normal school day, intimidating the children, who showed signs of sock and anxiety.
           


        • On 24 November 2014, at 9h20 a.m., an Israeli army force of three military jeeps broke into the Head Quarters of the Palestine Football Association. The force disembarked from the 3 vehicles and started to conduct a search in the first floor of the building, while preventing the employees, who were coming for their work, from entering the premises. The soldiers interrogated the employees of the 1st floor, asking a few of them when they arrive and depart from work. After 35-40 minutes inside the building, the force withdrew from the premises, but remained in the vicinity close by. When asked by the Director of the International department of the PFA why the force broke into a football facility that is under FIFA, their proclaimed officer denied breaking into the place at all. The officer said they were looking for someone and did not find him. The PFA official asked why they were still in the vicinity, then. The officer then asked the press not to take any footage, and the force withdrew from the vicinity shortly after that.








        Monday, August 25, 2014

        Israel Hinders Football in Occupied Palestine: 2008-2014: (detailed report and executive summary)



        Executive Summary: Israel Hinders Football in Occupied Palestine
        By Nonviolence International and the International Dept/Palestine Football Association: June 10, 2014

        Palestine Football Association (PFA). a non-governmental entity, and many of those involved in it are the victims of systemic acts of violence and other practices carried out by the Israeli Army to stifle the sport. The FPA suffers from 5 Israeli imposed practices which are enumerated in this report. Although FIFA took measures to end two of these practices, (obstacles to movement and receipt of equipment) pursuant to FIFA Circular no. 1385 these measures have been largely ineffective due to Israeli non-compliance. The PFA and Nonviolence International demand that that FIFA take corrective action.
        Infrastructure:
         The Israeli Occupation leaves the vast majority of Palestinian land under Israeli influence or control, where permits for new stadia are almost never granted. Furthermore, active intervention by Israeli forces inhibits the operation of existing football pitches and stadia.
        Examples of Israeli Intervention
        Ø    Halting of the Beit Ummar Stadium due to ‘security reasons’: proximity to Road #60
        Ø    Bombing of Palestine Stadium in Gaza in 2012
        Ø    Halting of a children’s match at the Al-Zaitun pitch in 2013 before shutting down operations indefinitely
        Movement:
        Israeli authorities not only inhibit the Palestine National Team from convening as a single entity but also impede foreign football delegations’ entry into the West Bank, greatly diminishing the development of football within Palestine.  
        Impediments to Gazans: Anecdotal Evidence of Israeli Policy
        The Palestinian National Team faces difficulties uniting players from Gaza and the West Bank, as Israeli authorities seldom issue these athletes and officials permits. This policy adversely impacts Palestinian football teams, inhibiting them from practicing and competing together. A right enjoyed by any other football team regardless of a player’s origin, it is denied to football under the Occupation. As illustrated below, Israeli authorities continue inhibiting movement within Palestine in stark contravention of FIFA Circular no, 1385.

        Ø     5 PFA members delayed from entering Palestine for the AFC U19 Men’s Qualifiers “due to security reasons” (October 2013)
        Ø     7 members of the PFA, POC, and media prohibited from participating in Youth Week on due to alleged ‘security reasons’ and a new policy curtailing entry into the West Bank only to the POC, of which one of the denied, Mr. Amassi, is a high-ranking official (November 2013)
        Ø     3 National Team players prohibited from joining the national team for the WAFF 8th Men’s Championship (December 2013)
        Prevention through Procedural Delays
        Israeli authorities prolong the permit obtaining process for foreign sporting delegations, forcing applicants to wait oftentimes between 3 days to 3 months to enter Palestine. Strategically granted after or in the midst of the scheduled affair, Israeli procedures curtail the Palestinian team’s ability to interact with other football teams, diminishing opportunities for football development in Palestine. Whilst official Israeli documents claim that permits were approved, these statistics are misleading because, although approved, permits are often delayed such that individuals can no longer complete their tasks in Palestine regardless of their acceptance into the territory.

        Ø     Iraqi children’s team detained at Allenby Bridge. Initially, the Iraqi delegation of 38 individuals was stopped; however, the authorities allowed the team—save 5 people—entry a few days following the commencement of the Grassroots tournament(August 2013)
        Ø     13 staff members, 6 members of the Jordanian team, 10 members of the UAE team were rejected one day before the same competition. Delays resulted in most visitors entering 3 days into it. (August 2013)
        Ø     Member of EDELGRASS subcontracting group delayed. Although Israeli documents claim the application was approved, the permit was not passed to the Palestinian Civil Ministry, causing the official FIFA development mission to fail, as the permits of the other 4 inspectors expired. (November 2013)
        Hindering Shipments of Donated Sports Equipment:
        For most other nations attempting to foster football, shipments of donated goods from FIFA and other football institutions are received in a timely fashion and without additional charges. This is not the case for football under Israeli Occupation, where shipments are either never cleared or intentionally delayed to such an extent that the additionally accrued costs are outside of the PFA’s pecuniary means, making it nearly impossible to retrieve the necessary football equipment.
        Examples of Israeli Impediments
        Ø     2008 shipment of Adidas goods destroyed
        Ø     2010 shipment of referee equipment blocked at Tel Aviv airport and has not been cleared to this date
        Ø     2010 UEFA shipment of youth equipment mistakenly stored in a large tin, incurring costs of over 15,000 USD, a staggering sum for the PFA to pay (accrued due to Israeli delays), postponing its retrieval
        Political Intervention:
        The Israeli occupation authority has actively worked to dissuade foreign nations from sending their football delegations to Palestine, curtailing Palestinian football by political means.
        Cases of Israeli Intervention
        Ø     2009 hosting of Brazilian Flamengo and Corinthians teams cancelled due to ‘financial problems’ which could only be resolved if they agreed to a joint match with the Israelis
        Ø     2011 friendly match with Zambia cancelled: Zambian Football Association “advised by the Government not to proceed” after Israeli political pressure
        Ø     2011 friendly match with Central African Republic cancelled: US interference on behalf of Israel aided in this cancellation
        Human Rights Violations:
        Cases of human rights violations are rife within the context of Palestinian football and characterised by the systemic violence with which the IDF seek to intervene in Palestinians’ attempts to foster football.
        Sample Cases of Israeli Violations
        Ø     Mahmoud Kamel Mohammad Sarsak: incarcerated without a trial while en route from his native Gaza to the West Bank to meet the Markaz Balata football club. He was interrogated for 30 days and remained in jail for 3 years.
        Ø     Basel Mahmud: coach of the Al-Isawiyah Club’s Women’s team was brutally attacked by the Israeli Army. According to an Israeli judicial decision, Coach Mahmud was not in violation of any official ruling when he was beat.

        Ø     Johar Nasser Aldeen Halabiyeh and Adam Halabiyeh: 19 year-old Abu Dis club player Johar and the 17 year-old Adam were attacked the night of 31 January 2014. Johar suffered from three bullet shots—two to his lower-body and one to his arm—and brutally attacked by the IDF and their dog. It was determined that the young men’s burgeoning football careers were ruined that night.



          

        Israel Hinders Football in Occupied Palestine: 2008-2014
        By Nonviolence International and the Palestine Football Association
        Author: Mariabruna Jennings
        Editors: Jonathan Kuttab, Susan Shalabi Molano
         June 10, 2014


        Table of Contents                                                                                                

        Infrastructure................................................................................................................................. 3
        Zoning Ordeals.................................................................................................................. 3
                    Cases of Active Israeli Intervention.................................................................................. 5
        Freedom of  Movement..................................................................................................................6
                    Pre-FIFA Mechanism............. ...........................................................................................6
                    Post-FIFA Mechanism........................................ ............................................................. 20
        Hindering Shipments of Donated Sports Equipment.................................................................... 26
        Political Intervention..................................................................................................................... 27
        Human Rights Violations.............................................................................................................. 29
        References..................................................................................................................................... 31
        Appendix....................................................................................................................................... 32




        Infrastructure                                                                                                 
        Introduction
        Palestinian territory was  divided by the Oslo Accords into A, B, and C sectors, which presents various challenges related to the construction of stadia, particularly when coupled with the often unreasonable use of the ‘security threat’ pretext by the Israeli authorities. In addition, the active intervention of Israeli forces inhibits the operation and use of existing football pitches and stadia within the territories, at times affecting innocent civilians— who are already under daily pressures from the Israeli authority.

        Zoning Ordeals
                    Palestinian territorial division was inaugurated as a product of the Oslo Accords, leaving the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) with plenary control over a mere 17.9% of the Palestinian territories.[1] These lands are designated as Zone A.  However, there remains two additional classifications: Zone B, which features a theoretical sharing of authority between Palestinian and Israeli administrations, and Zone C, which falls entirely under Israeli administration.[2] The vast majority of land—the  largest category comprising 59.2%  is classified as Zone C[3]—entrusted to Israeli authority.  The second largest category, comprising  22.9% belonging to Zone B[4]—also at least partially under Israeli control, leaving only the smallest category , 17.9% Zone A to be  administered purely by the PNA. Israel imposes restrictions on movement between the Zones, as well as controls building and construction in the Zones B and C. From such a division of territory and power follow numerous restrictions imposed by the Israeli authorities against the PFA’s attempts to foster the development of football within Palestine.
                    As can be seen in the map of the land demarcations dating back to Oslo (see Appendix I.I), Zone A comprises the majority of Palestinian cities. Being urban areas, the quantity of open space which can be converted into a football stadium or even a practice pitch is limited. Zone B, the next area of shared Palestinian authority, tends to surround these cities, comprising suburban settings. What follows is that, even in this Zone, there exists little open land to dedicate to football.[5] And to further complicate the situation, Israeli authorities have occasionally exerted their influence over this land for alleged ‘security reasons’.[6] Lastly, with the  territory completely under Israeli jurisdiction, it is often forbidden for Palestinians to build at all. Since the Israeli authorities obstruct any PFA attempts to construct by operating under a restrictive regime set forth by the Israeli Civil Administration, all building permits are generally denied to Palestinians.
        An example of this may be seen in the 2010 attempts to build football pitches with artificial turf in various locales (such as Burin, Beit Ummar, and Beit Foreeq).[7] Because these locals were located in Zones B and C, the Israeli administration simply refused to issue building permits. These projects were also terminated by the Israeli administration due to purported ‘security reasons’.[8] Another such instance transpired in Beit Leqya, a village near to Ramallah, which the PFA refurbished with a new natural grass pitch. However, the transaction became problematic, since the village itself belongs to Zone A, but  the free land dedicated to the extant pitch is located in Zone C.[9] This allowed the Israeli authorities to impose their regulations upon the PFA, demanding that they apply for a permit in order to evaluate any ‘security’ concerns the project may engender whilst nonetheless failing to provide a deadline for such considerations.[10] The result was denial of permission to a totally benign project.
        Further Israeli intervention occurred in April 2010 at the Sa’as Sayel Stadium in Nablus, a stadium which had been approved by FIFA in 2009 and for which a FIFA delegation headed by David Borja, the Head of the FIFA Development Office in Asia, was present at the ground-breaking ceremony.[11] However, during the first stage of construction, the site was visited by an Israeli force supported by the Israeli Civil Administration Office (DCO).[12] The squad of soldiers ordered that all work be ceased, threatening the arrest of the construction team and confiscation of machinery should anyone resist.[13] Furthermore the leader of the force  neither  had a warrant nor disclosed his full name.[14] According to the Israeli side, the issue was attributable to a lack of coordination between the Palestinian Football Association (PFA) and Israeli authorities before construction commenced, which is necessitated by the Stadium’s location in Zone C.[15] Nonetheless, the PFA showed they had complied with Israeli protocol, stating that there indeed had been several meetings between the Palestinian Ministry of Civil Affairs and the Israeli DCO.[16] The Israeli authorities then stated that they are entitled to reject projects for ‘security reasons’ within 45 days of receiving plans.[17]
        A similar event transpired at the Beit Ummar Stadium in Hebron, which according to Israeli authorities posed a security threat given the Stadium’s proximity to Road #60. The clearly contrived explanation being that—in the case that the Stadium were at full capacity, with 10,000 spectators—these individuals could potentially choose to throw stones at passing Israeli vehicles.[18] When met with such an explanation, the PFA sought to proffer the solution that they would pave a separate road leading to the Stadium, so that no entrance need be made facing Road #60 and that no cars may be parked there.[19] Additionally, the PFA offered to adopt the burden of security by sending in PNA forces should such an event transpire.[20] Nonetheless, the Israelis remained intransigent, maintaining that this proposed Stadium would be erected in Zone C, forcing the PFA to relocate the game pitch to Burn, which is in Zone A.[21] Problems then emerged with the Zone A locale, when on 15 January 2011 Israeli forces appeared at the construction site and inhibited the preparatory works that were beginning there.[22]
        This pattern continued with the Israeli authorities’ treatment of the Majed Asaad Stadium in Al-Bireh, in which case they claimed that there were ‘security’ concerns, as the cheering sounds made by spectators could be potentially irksome to the Jewish residents of the Psagot settlement within close proximity to the Stadium.[23]

        Cases of Active Israeli Intervention
                Although the instances above include cases of active Israeli intervention, they occurred in Zones under Israeli control and regulations. However, the following examples lack any similar impetus giving rise to an Israeli presence in Palestinian football stadia or practice pitches. One such example occurred on 23 August 2010 when the security and maintenance staff of the Faisal Al-Husseini Stadium in Al-Ram were accosted by an Israeli armed force of 15 soldiers and 3 officers after a match.[24] These Palestinians were later interrogated by the soldiers, who returned at 00h30m to search the changing rooms and then once more at 03h00m to photograph the Stadium.[25]
        In Gaza, on 18 November 2012, an arguably more serious occurrence took place (see Appendix I.II), as a squadron of Israeli Air Force F16 fighters wrought severe damage to the Palestine Stadium after recurring bombardment,[26] an act which was evidentially simply a repeat of a 2008 exercise on the same Stadium.[27]
                    Furthermore, on 4 March 2013, an Israeli joint force of special troops and intelligence officers barged onto the Jabal Al-Zaitun pitch in the village of Al-Tur within close proximity to Jerusalem in the midst of an official U14 match between the two children’s clubs of Jabal Al-Zaitun and Nadi al-Moathafin.[28] The Israeli forces disbanded the match and proceeded to threaten the juvenile players, their parents, the staff, as well as all other spectators that should they not immediately evacuate the vicinity, the soldiers would have to use force and make arrests.[29] Following that event , the pitch was forcibly closed and a warning was issued forbidding access to the pitch indefinitely.[30] According to one of the present international referees, the Israeli soldiers mentioned that the children “should go play in Ramallah, not here.”[31] This incident elicited a strong response from the President of the PFA, General Jibril Rajoub, who recounted the event to Joseph Blatter, President of FIFA, and other officials, calling upon the FIFA, IOC ( the International Olympic Committee) , and various other sporting institutions to aid in the plight of Palestinian footballers.[32]

        Restrictions on Movement                                                                                                                      
        Introduction
                    The 63rd FIFA congress issued FIFA President Joseph Blatter the challenge to eliminate the obstacles to Palestinian football with the help of the FIFA, the deadline for such measures being the following Congress in São Paolo, Brazil in June 2014.[33] The milieu giving rise to such a task was the myriad of restrictions imposed upon those involved in the Palestinian football enterprise, extending from players, coaches, and journalists to other officials within the PFA and visiting delegations. The FIFA Circular no. 1385—distributed to the members of FIFA on 14 October 2013—sought to “facilitate the movement of Players and Officials as well as football equipment into, out of, and within Palestine”[34] by means of FIFA oversight and with the implementation of a certain ‘mechanism’ whereby appointed liaison officers from both sides would aid in interactions between the two football associations.[35] Unfortunately, as we  will demonstrate below, the pattern established before the employment of this ‘mechanism’ remained strikingly similar to that prevailing following FIFA’s intervention.

        Pre-Mechanism
                    The PFA  issued an updated  report in January 2011 outlining the Israeli policy of constraints entitled ‘Israeli restrictions on Movement’.[36] From a study of said report emerges a reality in which professional league players, coaches, and referees were hindered when attempting to travel within the Palestinian territories, severely debilitating the PFA’s ability to operate within Palestine.[37]
        Amongst the harshest limitations were, perhaps, those imposed on Gazan athletes. In the ‘Southern Governorate’ of Gaza, for instance, Palestinian footballers were prohibited from benefiting professionally from the FIFA/AFC events they were entitled to attend.[38] Should a Gazan athlete already happen to be present in the West Bank by means of a permit, Israeli forces were known to apprehend the players and deport them back to Gaza.[39] The frequency of such an act, however, is limited when contrasted against the fact that Israeli authorities were reluctant to issue such travel permits that would allow Gazan  sportsmen and women to leave the confines of Gaza, in the first place, thereby denying them the opportunity to develop their skills both within Palestine and abroad.[40] Moreover, once Palestinian footballers from either the West Bank or Gaza were issued the permits allowing their departure, they were often encumbered by the Israeli checkpoints inevitably encountered along the path from city to city within the West Bank, an obstacle that oftentimes resulted in postponing matches due to the time lost attempting to pass through.[41]
        These restrictions to movement were not solely imposed upon the Palestinian athletes but also adversely affected visiting delegations: consisting of not only men but also of women and children, these delegations were occasionally forced by the Israeli authorities to endure the heat for numerous hours whilst attempting to cross the Allenby Bridge from Jordan into the West Bank,[42] an exhausting feat which could negatively affect their subsequent performance in any match. An example of such a delay can be seen prior to the momentous August 2008 game—Palestine’s first international match hosted on home territory—against Jordan when the Jordanian delegation was delayed for many hours at the Allenby Bridge by Israeli forces, when officials falsely claimed that the Jordanian team’s tardiness was caused by the Palestinian side.[43] A similar event transpired in August 2013, when the Iraqi team was detained for over six hours by the Israeli authorities whilst attempting to cross the Allenby Bridge.[44] The team was comprised of children expecting to participate in the West Asian Grassroots Championship to take place in Palestine from 12-23 August 2013 who had to endure the summer heat for hours in their buses without food or water as Israeli soldiers surrounded the vehicle.[45]
        Before even departing for Palestine, however, the process to attain an international permit to enter the West Bank is itself convoluted. The applicant must submit through the PFA their mobile phone number, their mother’s name, and a colored scan of their passport in addition to the necessary formal invitation to visit Palestine and their accompanying confirmation of said invitation,[46] before waiting anywhere between three days to a month in hopes of obtaining the desired permit.[47] However,  footballers and others must often wait approximately 25 days before the Israeli authorities determine whether or not the candidate is suitable for entry into Palestine,[48] though this process has been known to exceed three to five months for members of the team’s coaching and training support divisions.[49] The varying durations of how long permit applicants are made to wait is arguably indicative of an attempt to  needlessly suppress football operations within Palestine on the part of the Israeli authorities. An example of this occurred once more in the midst of the 13-23 August 2013 West Asian Grassroots competition in which members of the UEFA delegation were delayed for many  days in their attempt to traverse the Allenby Bridge on 14 August 2013. This caused Susan Shalabi Molano, Liaison Officer of the PFA to write to the IFA, who denied receiving word from their appropriate authorities but promised to complete the paperwork by that Monday—by which point it would have been too late to have been of use.[50]
        Furthermore, to continue with this above instance, the PFA was told that this permit-attaining process was exceedingly more difficult for those visitors coming from Arab countries, such as the General Secretary of the Jordan Football Association and the General Secretary of the West Asian Football Federation, since their nations lacked diplomatic relations with Israel (even though Jordan does have diplomatic relations with Israel).[51] Difficulties of this kind may be explained within the context of a then extant protocol whereby footballers of only certain nationalities were granted entry into Palestine without petitioning in advance for a permit, leading to a distinction between these and other ‘restricted’ nationalities.[52] The prime example of this discriminatory policy may be the Israeli authorities’ denial of an entire delegation entry into Palestine on the notion that Iraq is a ‘hostile’ nation to Israel,[53] a claim which itself is evidence of a confounding of sports and politics on the Israeli side of the affair. Nonetheless, a number of visitors were denied entry on the premise of ‘security reasons’ despite the fact that they had neither previously entered Palestine nor been convicted of any crime within their respective nations,[54] effectively bringing this ‘security’ pretext into question.
        Another instance of Israeli temporizing may be seen in the case of the AFC U19 Men’s Qualifiers that took place in Palestine from 11-16 October 2013,[55] a project which commenced before the implementation of the ‘mechanism’ but which was carried out ‘in the spirit of hope’,[56] as evidenced by the involvement of PFA and IFA respective liaison officers. The email correspondences began 30 September 2013, including a list of the individuals still lacking their permits despite the fact that the PFA applied for every individual. Nonetheless, the lackadaisical progress made by the Israelis toward resolving this matter compelled the PFA to petition FIFA and the UEFA to aid in accelerating the process.[57] Curiously, the vast majority of those whose permits were delayed for a very long time  were either from Arab countries (such as Jordan, Oman, and the UAE) or Gazans.[58] As the story unfolded, the permits—barring a few Bahraini ones—were supposedly received at the office of the Israeli DCO and would have been sent back to the Palestinian Civil Affairs office except that there allegedly was no typist available to complete the assignment.[59]
        The following is a non-exhaustive list of Israeli attempts to stifle, prolong, or deny the movement of players, coaches, referees, or officials either directly involved in or working in the support of the Palestinian football endeavour from 2010 to 2013, directly before the implementation of the ‘mechanism’. The first section of two dual-segmented list pertains directly to Palestinians encumbered from travelling within the Palestinian territories. The ensuing section pertains to members of foreign delegations who were adversely affected by the policy implemented by the Israeli occupational forces.

        Table I: Palestinians Affected by Israeli Restrictions to Movement
        Individual
        Position and Purpose
        Israeli Response/ Explanation
        Date
        Ammar Abusleisel[60]
        (resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 800228629)
        National Team player; wished to participate in a friendly match between Palestine and Mauritania on 11 August 2010.
        Denied.
        August 2010
        Mali Kaware[61]
        (resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 926739418)
        National Team player; wished to participate in a friendly match between Palestine and Mauritania on 11 August 2010.
        Denied.
        August 2010
        Suliman Obaid[62]
        (resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 906681408)
        National Team player; wished to participate in a friendly match between Palestine and Mauritania on 11 August 2010.
        Denied.
        August 2010
        Husam Wadi[63]
        (resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 81483314)
        National Team player; wished to participate in a friendly match between Palestine and Mauritania on 11 August 2010.
        Denied.
        August 2010
        Ismail Alamour[64] 
        (resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 801114638)
        National Team player; wished to participate in a friendly match between Palestine and Mauritania on 11 August 2010.
        Denied.
        August 2010
        Khaled Mahdi[65]      
        (resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 801491325)
        National Team player; wished to participate in a friendly match between Palestine and Mauritania on 11 August 2010.
        Denied.
        August 2010
        Asem Hussein Attalah Abu Assi[66]
        (resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 906668678)
        National Team player; needed to meet up with the rest of the Olympic National Team who were going to Guanzo, China to take part in the Asian Olympic tournament from 5-15 November 2010.
        Denied.
        November 2010, though Susan Shalabi Molano pressed for information as early as 28 October 2010.
        Ihab Mahmoud Hamad Abujazar[67]
        (resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 1807269)
        National Team player; needed to meet up with the rest of the Olympic National Team who were going to Guanzo, China to take part in the Asian Olympic tournament from 5-15 November 2010.
        Denied.
        November 2010, though Susan Shalabi Molano pressed for information earlier
        Ahmad Nasr Khalid Keshkesh[68]
        (resident of Gaza who was then residing in Amman,Palestinian ID 800361099)
        National Team player; needed to meet up with the rest of the Olympic National Team who were going to Guanzo, China to take part in the Asian Olympic tournament from 5-15 November 2010.
        Denied.
        November 2010, though Susan Shalabi Molano pressed for information earlier
        Abdelhameed Farouq Mohammad Abu Habeeb[69]
        (resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 802328971)
        National Team player; needed to meet up with the rest of the Olympic National Team who were going to Guanzo, China to take part in the Asian Olympic tournament from 5-15 November 2010.
        Upon arrival at the Allenby border, the Israeli forces informed him he  may travel to Jordan on the condition that he never return to the West Bank, a condition he refused and thus never travelled with team.
        November 2010, though Susan Shalabi Molano pressed for information earlier.
        Raafat Khaleel Mahmoud Ayyad[70]
        (holder of a Jerusalemite ID and Jordanian passport no. T536757)
        National Team player; Serves as a teacher in a school belonging to the Israeli Ministry of Education’s jurisdiction. Asked for 10 days leave in order to join the National Team, who were going to Guanzo, China to take part in the Asian Olympic tournament from 5-15 November 2010.
        Informed by his supervisor at the school that, should he take the leave he asked for, he would lose his employment. Elected not to travel.
        November 2010
        General Jibril Rajoub[71]
        President of the PFA
        Denied the VIP travel permit, despite the fact that his position in the Palestinian political echelons entitles him to such.
        December 2012
        Fadi M. N. Jaber[72]
        (Palestinian ID 80260447)
        National Team goal keeper
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.
        February 2013
        Mahmoud H. M. Fahjan[73]
        (Palestinian ID 800687428)
        National Team player
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.
        February 2013
        Alaa A. I. Atiyeh[74]
        (Palestinian ID 802760074)
        National Team player
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.
        February 2013
        Mohammad A. Z. Dahman[75]
        (Palestinian ID 802211953)
        National Team player
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.
        February 2013
        Mohammad M. H. Barakat[76]
        (Palestinian ID 800270407)
        National Team player
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.

        February 2013
        Anas Y. R. Ahelou[77]
        (Palestinian ID 801174954)                
        National Team player
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.

        February 2013
        Eid A. M. Alakkawi[78]
        (Palestinian ID 801956376)
        National Team player
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.

        February 2013
        Ismail M. H. Alheresh[79]
        (Palestinian ID 924929912)
        Palestinian physiotherapist
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.

        February 2013
        Mohammad A. Mansi Saleh[80]
        (Palestinian ID 406010314)
        Palestinian U14 team player
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.

        February 2013
        Ahmad N. A. Abu Hasanein[81]
        (Palestinian ID 405999095)
        Palestinian U14 team player
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.

        February 2013
        Abdelrahman E. S. Saleh[82]
        (Palestinian ID 405921438)
        Palestinian U14 team player
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.

        February 2013
        Omar M. A. Hamad[83]
        (Palestinian ID 405899469)
        Palestinian U14 team player
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.

        February 2013
        Hamed M. M. Hamdan[84]
        (Palestinian ID 406031351)
        Palestinian U14 team player
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.
                   
        February 2013
        Mo’taz J. A. Alhorani[85]
        (Palestinian ID 405828005)
        Palestinian U14 team player
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.
                   
        February 2013
        Suhail Z. M. Yahia[86]
        (Palestinian ID 40582742)
        Palestinian U14 team player
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.

        February 2013
        Husam R. S. Wadi[87]
        (Palestinian ID 801483314)
        Palestinian U14 team player
        Denied entry into the West Bank from Gaza.

        February 2013
        Mohamed Amsee[88]
        (Palestinian ID 901019216)
        PFA Vice Secretariat; needed to enter Palestine for the 11-16 October 2013 AFC U19 Men’s Qualifiers.
        Permit denied. How long? Did the delay make the application useless? Same comment for subsequent entries.
        As of 30 September 2013
        Abdel Salam Haneye[89]
        (Palestinian ID 906638820)
        PFA member, needed to enter Palestine for the 11-16 October 2013 AFC U19 Men’s Qualifiers.
        Permit delayed.
        As of 30 September 2013
        Omar Alamawe[90]
        (Palestinian ID 946240132)
        PFA member, needed to enter Palestine for the 11-16 October 2013 AFC U19 Men’s Qualifiers.
        Permit delayed.
        As of 30 September 2013
        Yousef Sarsour[91]
        (Palestinian ID 967496563)
        PFA member, needed to enter Palestine for the 11-16 October 2013 AFC U19 Men’s Qualifiers.
        Permit delayed.
        As of 30 September 2013
        Mohamed Dalo[92]
        (Palestinian ID 912175874)
        PFA member, needed to enter Palestine for the 11-16 October 2013 AFC U19 Men’s Qualifiers.
        Permit delayed.
        As of 30 September 2013

        Table II: Foreign Delegations Affected by Israeli Restrictions to Movement
        Individual
        Position and Purpose
        Israeli Explanation
        Date
        David Borja[93]
        FIFA Development official
        Insufficient time to check individual’s security background.
        May 2011
        Ahmed Ameri[94]
        (Iraqi, Passport no. A6242538)
        Iraqi team player; scheduled to play in Palestine for the 2nd leg of the 2nd round of the 2012-2013 UAFA Arab Clubs Cup, A FIFA-sanctioned event.
        Prevented from crossing the Allenby Bridge. No further explanation.
        December 2012





        Ayoub Bargam[95]
        (Iraqi, Passport no. A6010249)
        Iraqi team manager; the team was scheduled to play in Palestine for the 2nd leg of the 2nd round of the 2012-2013 UAFA Arab Clubs Cup, A FIFA-sanctioned event.
        Prevented from crossing the Allenby Bridge. No further explanation.
        December 2012
        Haydar Al Darraji[96]
        (Iraqi, Passport no. G2278123)
        Iraqi team player; scheduled to play in Palestine for the 2nd leg of the 2nd round of the 2012-2013 UAFA Arab Clubs Cup, A FIFA-sanctioned event.
        Prevented from crossing the Allenby Bridge. No further explanation.
        December 2012
        Wisam Kadhim[97]
        (Iraqi, Passport no. G1192079)
        Iraqi team player; scheduled to play in Palestine for the 2nd leg of the 2nd round of the 2012-2013 UAFA Arab Clubs Cup, A FIFA-sanctioned event.
        Prevented from crossing the Allenby Bridge. No further explanation.
        December 2012
        Hussein Al-Magsoosi[98]
        (Iraqi, Passport no. G1525493)
        Iraqi team player; scheduled to play in Palestine for the 2nd leg of the 2nd round of the 2012-2013 UAFA Arab Clubs Cup, A FIFA-sanctioned event.
        Prevented from crossing the Allenby Bridge. No further explanation.
        December 2012

        Essam Siam[99]
        (Egyptian, Passport no. A08260315)
        Match commissioner; scheduled to serve in Palestine for the 2nd leg of the 2nd round of the 2012-2013 UAFA Arab Clubs Cup, A FIFA-sanctioned event.
        Prevented from crossing the Allenby Bridge. No further explanation.
        December 2012

        Mohammad Al-Rawabdeh[100]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. G849886)
        Referee; scheduled to officiate matches in Palestine for the 2nd leg of the 2nd round of the 2012-2013 UAFA Arab Clubs Cup, A FIFA-sanctioned event.
        Prevented from crossing the Allenby Bridge. No further explanation.
        December 2012

        Ali Amil-La[101]
        (Iraqi, Passport no. G1161264)
        Iraqi Air Force team player; scheduled to play in Palestine against the Al-Thariyeh club for the 2nd leg of the 2nd round of the 2012-2013 UAFA Arab Clubs Cup, A FIFA-sanctioned event.
        Prevented from crossing the Allenby Bridge. No further explanation.
        December 2012

        Windsor John[102]
        AFC Official, seeking entry into Palestine to travel to Ramallah on official FIFA business to conduct a course
        Denied.
        February 2013
        Aung Myo Saw[103]
        Secretary of the Myanmar Woman’s team
        Denied entry into Palestine, allegedly for insufficient advance notice.
        May 2013
        Sin Mar Win[104]
        Player for the Myanmar Women’s team
        Denied entry due to the fact that she used a different passport from the one originally submitted to the PFA on 13 March 2013. However, her permit was later prepared. Nonetheless, as of 22 May 2013, she could not play in the scheduled match that day because of the physical and mental exhaustion caused by the ordeal.
        May 2013
        Nilar Myint[105]
        Player for the Myanmar Women’s team
        Denied entry due to the fact that she used a different passport from the one originally submitted to the PFA on 13 March 2013. However, her permit was later prepared. Nonetheless, as of 22 May 2013, she could not play in the scheduled match that day because of the physical and mental exhaustion caused by the ordeal.
        May 2013
        Munem Fakhouri[106]
        Assistant General Secretary and Head of the International Department of the West Asian Football Association
        As of 21 May 2013, he was neither granted nor denied a permit; nonetheless, no explanation was proffered by the Israeli side. It was later discovered 25 May 2013 that his permit was rejected by the Israelis
        May 2013
        Khalil Hatem Khalil Al-Salem[107]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. K854091)
        Staff member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013
        Fadi Eyadeh Issa Zureiqat[108]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. K000188)
        Staff member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013
        Suleiman Suleiman Nowar[109]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. K000320)
        Staff member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013
        Talal Mahmoud Alswilmyeen[110]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. L645999)
        Staff member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013
        Uruba Alhussaini[111]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. M150687)
        Staff member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Rami Ali Suleiman Al Qawaqzeh[112]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. I413833)
        Staff member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Sizar Omar Husni Soubar[113]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. K774880)
        Staff member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Samer Saadi Methqal Jaber[114]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. K955794)
        Staff member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Emad Hasan Nemar Argowb[115]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. K166167)
        Staff member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Qader Subhi Othman Ghanem[116]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. M346465)
        Staff member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Munther Abdalla Huseiny[117]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. K537541)
        Staff member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Moayad Alsharqatli[118]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. L951911)
        Staff member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Nihad Khaireldin Saleh Souqar[119]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. L343724)
        Staff member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Wesam Ahmed Ihzain[120]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. L596401)
        Jordanian team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Moayad Salim Ali Mansour[121]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. M123957)
        Jordanian team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Thamer Najim Subih Dahboor[122]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. K506903)
        Jordanian team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Adnan Mohammad Alshuaibat[123]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. K497039)
        Jordanian team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Mousa Eshtayan Albaharat[124]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. M406835)
        Jordanian team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Mohammad Younis Jarwan[125]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. K163826)
        Jordanian team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Badir Ahmed Alhammadi[126]
        (Emirate, Passport no. LP9N06068)
        UAE team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Salem Jawhar Alkhateri[127]
        (Emirate, Passport no. JZP757986)
        UAE team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Khaled Mohamed Alhousani[128]
        (Emirate, Passport no. A2237542)
        UAE team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Zakareya Ahmed Alawadhi[129]
        (Emirate, Passport no. C88356744)
        UAE team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Khaldoun Bashir Alkloub[130]
        (Emirate, Passport no. K766173)
        UAE team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Monir Aliazaerli[131]
        (Syrian, Passport no. 005536722)
        UAE team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Mohamed Abdelkarim Mohamed[132]
        (Sudanese, Passport no. P00896332)
        UAE team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Abdulla Ali Abdulla Alzaabi[133]
        (Emirate, Passsport no. A2664677)
        UAE team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Sabet Abaid Suroor Sabet Alali[134]
        (Emirate, Passport no. A2754400)
        UAE team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Obaid Mubarak Abaid Alshansi[135]
        (Emirate, Passport no. A2470646)
        UAE team member; West Asian 4th Grassroots Championship from 13-23 August 2013
        Rejected, email received 13 August 2013—already one day into the competition
        August 2013

        Abdulaziz Mohamed Humood Alabd Alshaikh[136]
        (Bahraini, Passport no. 2148563)
        Bahrain team player; 11-16 October 2013 AFC U19 Men’s Qualifiers
        Permit delayed; no notification as of 30 September 2013did this person and the next few entries get the permit?or not, or was it too late?

        September 2013
        Ali Abdulla Ali Abdulla Ahmed[137]
        (Bahraini, Passport no. 2136287)
        Bahrain team player; 11-16 October 2013 AFC U19 Men’s Qualifiers
        Permit delayed; no notification as of 30 September 2013

        September 2013
        Mohamed Ahmed Ismaeel Bumeajib[138]
        (Bahraini, Passport no. 2303442)
        Bahrain team player; 11-16 October 2013 AFC U19 Men’s Qualifiers
        Permit delayed; no notification as of 30 September 2013

        September 2013


        Hasan Sayed Ebrahim Mohamed Husain[139]
        (Bahraini, Passport no. 2135303)
        Bahrain team player; 11-16 October 2013 AFC U19 Men’s Qualifiers
        Permit delayed; no notification as of 30 September 2013

        September 2013

        Mazin Khamis Yasir Al-Abri[140]
        (Omani, Passport no. 2227670)
        Oman team player; 11-16 October 2013 AFC U19 Men’s Qualifiers
        Permit delayed; no notification as of 30 September 2013

        September 2013

        Said Ahmed Jamaan Bait Baqaweer[141]
        (Omani, Passport no. 2930030)
        Oman team board member; 11-16 October 2013 AFC U19 Men’s Qualifiers
        Permit delayed; no notification as of 30 September 2013

        September 2013


        Post-Mechanism
                    From the very inception, efforts to bring the aforementioned ‘mechanism’ to fruition as a viable solution to the Palestinian football quandaries have been marred by a lack of compliance from the Israeli side. Evidence for such a claim may be found in the 25 August 2013 letter entitled ‘Re: Meeting between the Israel Football Association and the Palestine Football Association’ sent to the General Secretary of FIFA in which the IFA claimed that “it must be kept in mind that we live and operate under the security limitations of the State of Israel, over which we have no control, and which are decided upon at the governmental political and defense level,”.[142] The same letter proceeds to make political demands and declare that “the Palestine Football Association must operate through the formal channels of the State of Israel, as other bodies belonging to the Palestinian Authority do.”[143] This essentially subordinates the PFA to the Israeli state, stripping the PFA of its identity as an entity purely concerned with football rather than politics and the government—let alone the Israeli government. Despite the firm stance established in the August letter, the appointed ILO ( Israeli Liaison Officer) Hershco who is the liaison officer selected to represent the interests of the IFA, seemed to equivocate when he wrote 22 October 2013 that, “On behalf of our FA, I wish you all the best and hope that all our mutual efforts alongside my colleague Susan from the PFA, will assist in concentrating in football solely,”[144].
                    In fact, it can be said that the very meetings establishing this ‘mechanism’ were convened in the aftermath of Israeli obstinacy—in this instance concerning the Gazan Deputy Secretary General of the PFA, Mohammad Amassi, who was denied exit from Gaza to Zurich, where the FIFA headquarters was the location of the 3 September 2013 meeting.[145] Mr. Amassi was to serve as the third delegate of the PFA[146] although he was impeded from doing so, as he was met with intransigence from the Israeli authorities. In part stemming from convoluted Israeli protocol (which forced Mr. Amassi to apply for his visa to visit Switzerland through the Swedish Consulate in Jerusalem)[147] and also from incapacity (as the necessary fingerprinting device was somehow missing).[148] This is despite the fact that the PFA complied with the Israeli permit application procedures, even including a letter from FIFA asking for a facilitated process for the official as early as 15 August 2013.[149] Pressed with the close proximity of the meeting, the PFA decided to appoint a different representative as their third delegate[150] for the first meeting in a seminal series during which the procedures for the ‘mechanism’ were drafted and for which a pivotal member of the PFA board could not be present due to Israeli impediments. Nonetheless, following the 14 October 2013 distribution of FIFA Circular no. 1385, cases of Palestinian immobility at the hands of the Israeli authorities persisted.
                    In fact Mr. Amassi was the subject of another Israeli attempt to stifle the PFA’s operation not even a month following the dispatch of FIFA Circular no. 1385. The high-ranking PFA official—along with five other Gazans—were denied permits to participate in the innocuous PFA/POC co-sponsored Youth Week event from 11-14 November 2013.[151] Proper documentation for these individuals was delivered to the Civil Administration  on 3 November 2013; however, due to the fact that the individuals seeking permits were Palestinian citizens, the 21-35 day obligation outlined in the ‘mechanism’ was deemed  no longer applicable.[152] As of 9 November 2013 (two days prior to the commencement of Youth Week), the Gazan delegation had yet to obtain their permits, impelling Susan Shalabi Molano, the Palestinian liaison officer, to contact her Israeli counterpart, Ronen Hershco, who responded the next day (10 November 2013, one day prior to the commencement of Youth Week) that he inquired with his contact and now had to wait for a response,[153] despite the pressing  nature of the event’s imminence and the fact that the PFA supplied all necessary documentation well  in advance. An explanation of the affair from the Israeli authorities was not provided until 13 November 2013 (three days into Youth Week) that, “In general what is permitted (upon approval) are players and coaches for any official activity going from Gaza to the Judea and Samaria, as well as members of the Palestinian Olympic Committee,”[154] a contrived excuse . The result was that Mr. Amassi—the Deputy General Secretary of the PFA and Execute General Secretary of the POC ( Palestinian Olympic Committee)[155]—was rejected along with other PFA board members and three sports journalists,[156] all individuals who serve a function in the Palestinian football endeavour.
         In fact, in light of this ordeal, Ms. Shalabi Molano communicated to  James Johnson, the designated FIFA official monitoring interactions between the IFA and PFA so long as the ‘mechanism’ is instated, that, “Before the mechanism, we used to submit all elements of sport, including journalists. Now, we find out that the highest executive officials of football are excluded?”[157] The case of Mr. Amassi’s rejection is particularly troubling, however, because it may be interpreted as implying that the Israeli authorities fabricated some new policy—referring to the one elaborated by Mr. Hershco in his 13 November email—in order to justify their denial of the Gazan individuals, meaning they perhaps were not aware of the fact that Mr. Amassi served as a key member of both institutions. Nonetheless, such would be speculation based on the evidence; though, what is concrete is that fact that Israeli authorities working through and alongside the ILO did not actively seek to facilitate the movement of Palestinians involved in football, as the tenets of the ‘mechanism’ insist they do.
        Furthermore, such an action on behalf of the Israeli authorities was in stark contravention of the FIFA Circular no. 1385, as evidence by the fact that the Youth Week occurrence elicited a response from FIFA Deputy Secretary General Makus Kattner, who on 15 November 2013 issued a fax to the general secretaries of both the IFA and PFA in regard to the email communication outlined above.[158] The fax served to clarify that “FIFA Circular 1385 is applicable to players, coaches, referees and officials,”[159] meaning that—at the very least—Mr. Amassi and his fellow PFA board members, ‘officials’ as they are, should have been admitted into the West Bank. Nonetheless, Mr. Amassi was not granted his permit, despite the fact that both the FIFA Circular no. 1385 and the Israeli excuse pertaining to POC members both theoretically should have granted him entry. In the IFA’s January 2014 report evaluating the interactions of the two football associations since the implementation of the ‘mechanism’,[160] the story becomes slightly modified as Mr. Amassi’s rejection was explained by claiming that he “[d]id not meet criterions,” being “a member of the football association,” and that “[a] list of PA’s board member has not been provided.”[161] The persisting variation in explanation is symptomatic of a greater sentiment of non-compliance on behalf of the Israeli authorities, once more casting doubt over the efficacy of this ‘mechanism’.
        The following is a non-exhaustive list of Israeli attempts to stifle, prolong, or deny the movement of players, coaches, referees, or officials either directly involved in or working in support of the Palestinian football endeavour following the implementation of the ‘mechanism’.

        Table III: Individuals Affected by Israeli Restrictions to Movement Post-Mechanism
        Individual
        Position and Purpose
        Israeli Response/Explanation
        Date
        Walid Ali Mustafa Ismail[162]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. K804105)
        EDELGRASS subcontractor; dispatched by FIFA to Palestine to inspect artificial turf pitches.
        Delayed
        November 2013
        Seena Omar Shaban Hatuqay[163]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. M371347)
         Media; POC Activity/Youth Week
        No reply
        November 2013
        Mohammad Ismail Ahmad Amassi[164]
        (Resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 901019216)
         PFA/POC Official; Participation in the official POC Youth Week
        “Did not meet the criteria as a member of the football association. Furthermore, a list of the PFA’s board members is required. Did not appear for a security reassessment meeting.[165]
         November 2013
        Ismail Ahmad Ismail Matar[166]
        (Resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 922745138)

         PFA Official; Participation in the official POC Youth Week

         Did not meet the criteria.[167]


         November 2013

        Fathi Yousef Ahmad Abu el Ola[168]
        (Resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 956185136)
         PFA Official; Participation in the official POC Youth Week

         Did not meet the criteria.[169]


        November 2013

        Ashraf Husni Mohammad Matar[170]
        (Resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 901005207)
        Media; Participation in the official POC Youth Week
        Previously accepted into the West Bank but denied due to current policy limitations allowing only POC members to depart from Gaza.[171]
        November 2013
        Ibrahim Mohammad Ahmad Abu AlSheikh[172]
        (Resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 917639866)
        Media; Participation in the official POC Youth Week
        Previously accepted into the West Bank but denied due to current policy limitations allowing only POC members to depart from Gaza.[173]
        November 2013
        Osama Mohammad Hafez Felfel[174]
        (Resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 912455250)
        Media; Participation in the official POC Youth Week
        Previously accepted into the West Bank but denied due to current policy limitations allowing only POC members to depart from Gaza.[175]
        November 2013
        Anas Yaser Rashad Al-Helou[176]
        (Resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 801174954)
        Player; Joining the National team for the WAFF 8th Men’s Championship
        Denied
        December 2013
        Maysarah Khalid Khader Al-Bawwab[177]
        (Resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 802418665)
        Player; Joining the National team for the WAFF 8th Men’s Championship
        Denied
        December 2013
        Mohammad Omar Jabr AlDiri[178]
        (Resident of Gaza, Palestinian ID 802176826)
        Player; Joining the National team for the WAFF 8th Men’s Championship
        Denied
        December 2013
        Mohammad Mousa Khalaf Abu Loum[179]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. K231894[180])
        Referee; AFC Cup: Al-Dahryieh Vs. Alay FC
        Delayed to such an extent that he received the permit 3 hours before he was to serve as referee for the match, leaving insufficient time to carry out his duty. The PFA used a substitute referee for the game.
        February 2014
        Ziad Tawfiq Suleiman Akoubeh[181]
        (Jordanian, Passport no. L375831)
        AFC instructor; conducting AFC coaching course in Ramallah
        Permit delayed
        March 2014
                   
                    The table above demonstrates that many of the barriers to movement reported to have existed before the implementation of this ‘mechanism’ persistently reappeared after the ‘mechanism’ had been instated: Palestinians are still impeded from travelling within their own borders and abroad, severely limiting their capacity to benefit from football opportunities, and other foreign officials continue to be either purposefully delayed or prohibited from entering the West Bank in order to carry out their duties in support of football in Palestine. In a letter sent to Markus Kattner, Deputy Secretary General of FIFA, from Rotem Kamer, CEO of the IFA, on 12 January 2014, Kamer writes that “although the matter is out of the scope of the IFA competence, we will be happy to help.”[182] Further reason for concern may be that following the rejections of November and Youth Week, the IFA sought out the press and stated that, “Chairman Avi Luzon and the heads of the IDF are trying constantly to help the Palestinian Authority maintain a life of sports as long as it does not put the State of Israel and its citizens in danger,”[183] once more lending credence to this recurring embroiling of sports and politics, once more an equivocation before the evidence that suggests the contrary: that the IFA is not interested in aiding the Palestinian football endeavour, choosing rather to use the same ‘security’ pretext used by the Israeli authorities for curtailing football activities within Palestine. However, given the discrepancy between the IFA’s purported desire to ameliorate football operations within Palestine and the apparently narrow scope of their authority and the fact that the same pattern established before the ‘mechanism’ endures presently, it seems that this ‘mechanism’ is not a sustainable and effective measure and that, therefore, other avenues of remediation ought to be sought out.

        Hindering Shipments of Donated Sports Equipment                                              
        Additional obstacles facing the PFA are characterised by barriers to receiving donated equipment and tools necessary to facilitate football operating procedures. As was the case for the entry of foreign players, sports equipment entering Palestine from abroad must be meticulously recorded and processed by the Israeli occupation authorities, as outlined in the 2010 report released by the PFA entitled ‘Israeli Impediments on Palestinian Shipments’.[184] The sports shipments typically arrive in Tel Aviv at the Ben Gurion Airport or have to enter Palestine via Jordan; however, as is the case for the foreign visitors, goods entering Palestine from abroad, too, must be accompanied by ample documentation, including: a letter from the donor explaining how the goods will be used; the donor’s name, phone number, and address; the receiver’s name, phone number, and address; a letter from the Palestinian Customs to its Israeli counterpart petitioning the latter to clear the shipment; a detailed list of all shipped items and their quantity, brand, size, and so on; and, finally, the name, address, and phone number of the individual or company completing the clearance.[185] Nonetheless, once this has been completed, there is still, of course, the wait time for the documentation to pass through Israeli scrutiny, the duration of which may last a month while the shipment continues to accrue storage costs.[186]
        Within this same report, it is stated that “[i]n short, the PFA received none of the FIFA Referee material since 2008,”[187] and this is not an exaggeration. For example, the 2008 shipment containing Adidas goods was delivered via the Tel Aviv airport, where the customs officials temporised causing the PFA to incur a large bill and eventually lose the shipment which was later destroyed by Israeli Customs in order to reclaim the space it occupied due to the lackadaisical progress made by Israeli customs.[188] In 2010, the referee shipment via DHL consisting of pins, coins, badges, identification cards and the like was blocked in Tel Aviv,[189] causing another shipment to be sent via UPS but which was also inhibited from being cleared, according to Israeli Customs, by a “lack of documentation”[190]—despite the fact that Adidas sent a letter outlining all the demanded information.[191]
        Additional difficulty was encountered when attempting to process the UEFA’s 2010 donation to the PFA of goods “for distribution to different local youth football teams and schools, free of charge as a support for the youth development programme initiated by the PFA”[192] and which was received by the Israeli Mediterranean Shipping Company (MSC) through Ashdod port on 15 May 2010.[193] However, upon receipt, the PFA was notified by the MSC that should they not retrieve their goods in the required window of time, they will incur costs and taxes and furthermore that the MSC would no longer be liable for the cargo and any damages it may receive.[194] As of 25 September 2010, though, Israeli Customs claimed that the PFA must pay 15,174 USD due to the fact that the shipment was stored in a large container that engulfed a fair amount of space, failing to take into account their own delays that helped create such a staggering sum,[195] as the PFA had striven to obtain a custom exemption  since 15 June 2010.[196] The UEFA then sent a letter stating that the costs are covered by the UEFA and that the goods are of no commercial value,[197] “kindly request[ing] the Customs Authorities and Governmental Bodies of Palestine to exempt the above-mentioned donation from any taxes.”[198]
        Although this is not an exhaustive recounting of the challenges faced by the PFA in attempting to obtain their official donated goods, it can nonetheless be observed that Israeli Occupation procedures greatly retard process and cause the PFA to incur additional and unexpected costs: barriers making the football endeavor within Palestine needlessly more difficult.

        Political Intervention                                                                                           
        Israeli attempts to stifle  Palestinian football  extend beyond the confines of the Palestinian border, as the Israeli government made efforts to dissuade foreign nations from sending their football delegations to Palestine before these teams were even allotted the chance to endure the strenuous permit obtaining procedure and other additional impediments to their movement once within the West Bank. Another variation of the ‘barring movement’ theme, this gambit utilised by the Israeli authorities can be considered a more subversive form of intervention, as the Israeli Occupation forces are actively seeking to curtail Palestinian football by political means. These measures oftentimes implicate higher political bodies extraneous of the theoretically independent football associations of each nation.
                    One such example dates back to 2009, as the PFA made strides toward hosting a match in Palestine for Brazil’s Flamengo and Corinthians teams.[199] The milieu was one of anticipation, as Vera Cintia Alvarez of the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs wished to foster more interaction between Brazil and Palestine, perhaps even demonstrating to the world the possibility of an independent Palestine.[200] The matches were orchestrated to take place at the Faisal Al-Husseini stadium in Al-Ram in mid-September 2009[201]; however, these efforts culminated in impossibility, as the Brazilian contact notified the PFA that there were presented certain ‘financial problems’ that jeopardized the feasibility of the match.[202] The real reason became apparent when a proposition was put forth that should there be a joint match with the Israelis, the issue would be immediately resolved—no more ‘financial problem’,[203] a curious development indicative of some variety of political pressure being put on the Brazilian government.[204]
                    Palestinian plans to orchestrate friendly matches with several African nations, too, were revoked following Israeli intervention on the political level in 2011.[205] Efforts to host the football associations of Zambia, Central African Republic, and Gambia first commenced in September 2011, when it was decided that such games would take place in mid-November of that same year.[206] Initially, every potentially visiting delegation supported the idea and began setting dates and discussing logistical matters;[207] nonetheless, each delegation cancelled. The Zambian Football Association contacted the PFA stating that their football association “has been advised by the Government not to proceed,” proceeding to relay that “the Minister of Sport himself called us advising us not to proceed.”[208] A similar event transpired in CAR, when the CAR Minister of Sports contacted the PFA to state that the match would have to be cancelled in light of the fact that the US embassy in Bangui “on behalf of Israel” contacted the CAR Minister of Foreign Affairs asking him to discuss matters of the intended game against Palestine with the President of the Republic, who had notified the Minister of Sports to cancel the match.[209] Lastly, in Gambia the match was supposedly cancelled due to “logistical constraints and the Muslim feast of Eid Al-Adha,”[210] yet when asked all but one member of the team stated there was no reason they were unable to travel.[211]
                    In response to such insidious efforts made by the Israeli authorities aimed at suppressing Palestinian football, President of FIFA Joseph Blatter wrote to General Rajoub that the aforementioned struggle “shows once more the extremely difficult situation that PFA is facing when it comes to football development in general, and to the organisation of football matches in particular.”[212] He proceeded to convey that he is “saddened and worried that football is taken hostage of the political situation.”[213]
        Human Rights Violations                                                                           
        Cases of human rights violations are rife within the context of the Palestinian football plight—affecting men, women, and children. For example, twelve-year-old Mamoun al-Dam departed from his home 20 June 2012 to play football on family land in Gaza when his relatives were alerted by the sound of a nearby explosion caused by Israeli warplanes firing in the vicinity.[214] The following sound was his scream.[215] Caught in the crossfire, the child soon died.[216] Characterized by the wanton violence with which the IDF seek to intervene in Palestinians’ attempts to take part in the football endeavor, the following cases illustrate the damage wrought by the Israeli security state, injuries which negatively impact not only attempts to foster football under occupation but also the lives of innocent people.
        For instance, on 22 July 2009 the footballer Mahmoud Kamel Mohammad Sarsak was detained and later incarcerated by Israeli governmental officials without a trial while he was en route from his native Gaza to the West Bank with the intention of meeting his new Markaz Balata football club.[217] The young man was interrogated for thirty days, and his family was denied the opportunity to visit him, not knowing the nature of his imprisonment as he remained in jail for three years.[218] At some point during his imprisonment, Sarsak commenced a hunger strike, refusing to eat for 85 days—an act of resistance which threatened his life, as the 25 year-old man lost upwards of 30 kilograms of weight.[219] Similar stories may be found in the cases of Omar Khaled Abu Rweis, the 23 year-old goal keeper of the Olympic team who was abducted from his workplace by Israeli military forces and incarcerated, as well as in that of Mohammad Saadi Ibrahim Nimer, the 22 year-old Al-Amaari professional club member who was arrested by the IDF and was denied a trial.[220] This previous examples are sorrowfully indicative of the absence of the rule of law within the occupied territories as Israeli forces capriciously detain innocent people without justification, as was precisely the case when troops arrested sixteen children playing football in a Tel school pitch.[221]
        In addition to arresting innocent individuals, Israeli forces have also been known to forcibly enter Palestinian stadia, such as the 31 January 2014 instance in which a professional league match had to be cancelled due to the fact that Israeli authorities were shooting tear gas within close proximity to the Faisal Al-Husseini Stadium (please refer to Appendix V.I), adversely impacting the footballers’, spectators’, and referees’ ability to breathe.[222] This was one year after the 3 January 2013 Israeli armed forces break-in into the same stadium, after which they brutally attacked a member of the maintenance staff before forcibly taking him to an undisclosed location.[223]
        However, a more disconcerting variation of the above transgression took place later that year to Coach Basel Mahmud of the Al-Isawiyah Club’s Women’s team on 24 November 2013,[224] which is of added concern since it occurred after the implementation of the ‘mechanism’. According to the ILO Herscho, “Mr. Basel did not have a valid permit to be in Israel on the date that the incident may have taken place,”[225] an excuse which not only sought to shift the blame to the physically assaulted victim (please refer to Appendix V.II) but which also intimates at the fact that Mr. Herscho is doubtful of whether or not the violation even occurred—as implied by his choice of phrasing: ‘may have taken place’. However, according to a decision authorized by the head of the committee of appeals, Mrs Sarah Shauul-Weiss, “no deportation action from Israel shall be taken against...Basel Mamud.”[226] Which indicates that Coach Mamud was not in violation of any official ruling when he was assaulted by the IDF.
        Arguably, amongst the most alarming violations of human rights is also one of the most recent: the victims being the 19 year-old Abu Dis club player Johar Nasser Aldeen Halabiyeh and his younger relative, the 17 year-old Adam, who were both attacked the night of 31 January 2014 at approximately 23h15m.[227] Johar suffered from three bullet shots—two to his lower-body and one to his arm—before being brutally beaten by the IDF and assaulted by their dog, who nearly removed a chunk of his arm.[228] Following this violent incident, the two young men were arrested and quickly released due to the illicit nature of their apprehension but were initially denied the right to be treated in a Palestinian hospital, being sent rather to Hadasa Ein Karem Israeli hospital.[230] Although Johar and Adam were eventually transferred to a Ramallah hospital, their battle was not yet over, as the critical Israeli doctor reports on the patients were withheld from the Jordanian doctors for days while the Hadasa Ein Karem hospital staff was on strike, which continued until 19 February.[231] Johar, in critical condition, was victim not only to Israeli violence but also to that inefficiency which characterises their interactions with the PFA. In light of the tragedy, the Palestinian liaison officer, Susan Shalabi Molano wrote to her Israeli counterpart, “It may be worth mentioning that medical reports indicate these boys will be lucky if they could jog when they recover… Football is out of the question for them now. Does this needless suffering make sense to anyone, I ask?”[232]

        References                                                                                                                     
        Almigheri, Rami. “Remembering Mamoud, killed by an Israeli missile as he played football.”        Electronic Intifada, June 22, 2012. http://electronicintifada.net/content/remembering- mamoun-killed-israeli-missile-he-played-football/11434.
        Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories. Report. 2014.
        “Development of affairs since the FIFA 63rd Conference of Mauritius until today.” EXCO           meeting talking points, 2013.
        “Incidents.” Red Card Israeli Racism, last modified May 2014. http://rcir.org.uk/?page_id=428.
        Mishal, Yonathan and Sheinman, Moshe. “Rajoub wants to cut sports ties with Israel.” Ynet         news, November 18, 2013. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4454864,00.html.
        Palestine Football Association. Israeli impediments against Palestinian Football infrastructure.      Ref: X-Ob/2011/010. Ramallah, Palestine: 2011.
        Palestine Football Association. Israeli impediments on Palestinian shipments. Ref: X-        Ob/2011/009. Ramallah, Palestine: May 5, 2011. 
        Palestine Football Association. 1st Report on the mechanism between the PFA& IFA. Ramallah,    Palestine: 2013.
        Palestine Football Association. 2nd Report on the mechanism between the PFA& IFA. Ramallah,   Palestine: 2014.
        Palestine Football Association. REPORT ON THE PROBLEMS FACED BY THE PALESTINIAN                     FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF A FRIENDLY MATCH ON          THE FIFA DATE OF 17 NOVEMBER 2011. Ramallah, Palestine: November, 2011.

        Appendix                                                                                                              
        I.I Divisions of the West Bank Post-Oslo Accords
        I.II Damages to Palestine Stadium 2012
                    
        Source: file, Palestine.Stadium.1                                Source: file, Palestine.Stadium.3

         V.I Damages Incurred by Coach Basel Mahmud

          Source: Shalabi, Susan. Email to Ronen Hershco, December 6, 2013. | X-Em-20140100-Basel.Mahmud's.casePermits & other issues|
        V.II Damages Incurred by Johar and Adam Halabiyeh

         Source: Shalabi, Susan. Email to Ronen Hershco, February 2, 2014. | X-Em-20140202-Reg.Johar.&.Adam.Halabiyeh|
          


        [1] “Incidents,” Red Card Israeli Racism, last modified May 2014, http://rcir.org.uk/?page_id=428.
        [2] Ibid.
        [3] Ibid.
        [4] Ibid.
        [5] Ibid.
        [6] Ibid.
        [7] “Incidents,” Red Card Israeli Racism, last modified May 2014, http://rcir.org.uk/?page_id=428.
        [8] Ibid.
        [9] Ibid.
        [10] Ibid.
        [11] Palestine Football Association, Israeli impediments against Palestinian Football infrastructure, Ref: X-Ob/2011/010 (Ramallah, Palestine: 2011), 1.
        [12] Ibid., 2.
        [13] Ibid.
        [14] Ibid.
        [15] Ibid.
        [16] Ibid.                                                                                             
        [17] Ibid.
        [18] Ibid.  
        [19] Israeli impediments against Palestinian Football infrastructure, 2.
        [20] Ibid.
        [21] Ibid., 2-3.
        [22] Ibid., 3.
        [23] Ibid.
        [24] Ibid.
        [25] Ibid.                                                                     
        [26] Rajoub, Jibril. Fax to Joseph Blatter, November 18, 2012. | X-Pob-235-20121118-Complaint.FIFA.President.Bombardment.of.stadium|
        [27] Ibid.
        [28] Rajoub, Jibril. Fax to Joseph Blatter, March 5, 2013. |X-Pob-020-20130227-FIFA.P.protest.Israeli.transgressions|
        [29] Ibid.
        [30]Rajoub, Jibril. Fax to Joseph Blatter, March 5, 2013. |X-Pob-020-20130227-FIFA.P.protest.Israeli.transgressions|
        [31] Ibid.
        [32] Ibid.
        [33] “Development of affairs since the FIFA 63rd Conference of Mauritius until today” (EXCO meeting talking points, 2013), 1. |10th.EXCO.Mtng.Talking.points|
        [34] Valcke, Jerome. Fax to the Members of FIFA, October 14, 2013.
        [35] Ibid.
        [36] Palestine Football Association, Israeli restrictions on Movement, Ref: X-Ob/2011/08 (Ramallah, Palestine: 2011), 1. |X-Ob-008-20110115-Israeli.restrictions.players.|
        [37] Ibid.
        [38] Israeli restrictions on Movement, 1.
        [39] Ibid.
        [40] Ibid.
        [41] Ibid., 2.
        [42] Ibid.
        [43] Ibid., 1.
        [44] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Naomi Wimborne-Idrissi, August 15, 2013. | X-Em-20130816-To.Naomi.on.Blatter's.visit.to.Palestine|
        [45] Ibid.
        [46] “Incidents,” Red Card Israeli Racism, last modified May 2014, http://rcir.org.uk/?page_id=428.
        [47] Ibid.
        [48] Israeli restrictions on Movement, 3.
        [49] “Incidents,” Red Card Israeli Racism, last modified May 2014, http://rcir.org.uk/?page_id=428.
        [50] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Kevin Lamour, August 16, 2013. |X-Em-20130814-EUFA.Reg.WAFF.4th.GR|
        [51] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Kevin Lamour, August 15, 2013. |X-Em-20130814-EUFA.Reg.WAFF.4th.GR|
        [52] Janakat, Isaac. Email to Susan Shalabi, May 16, 2013. |X-Em-20130520-Myanmar.players.pro….pdf|
        [53] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Moya Dodd, August 21, 2013.|X-Em-20130816-Moya.reg.trouble.wit….pdf|
        [54] Israeli restrictions on Movement, 3.
        [55] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Primo Corvaro September 30, 2013. |X-Em-20130930-Corres-liaison-AFC U19 Qualifiers-Men_8-11|
        [56] Ibid.
        [57] Ibid.
        [58] Ibid.
        [59] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Primo Corvaro September 30, 2013. |X-Em-20130930-Corres-liaison-AFC U19 Qualifiers-Men_8-11|
        [60] X-Ob-008-20110115-Israeli.restrictions.players.movement
        [61] Israeli restrictions on Movement, 5.
        [62] Ibid.
        [63] Ibid.
        [64] Ibid.
        [65]Israeli restrictions on Movement, 5.
        [66] Shalabi, Susan. Email to David Borja, October 28, 2010. |X-Ob-125-20101028-to.MA's.more.Israeli.restrictions.on.players|
        [67] Ibid.
        [68] Ibid.
        [69]Ibid.
        [70] Shalabi, Susan. Email to David Borja, October 28, 2010. |X-Ob-125-20101028-to.MA's.more.Israeli.restrictions.on.players|
        [71]Shalabi, Susan. Fax to Joseph Blatter, December 14, 2012. |X-Ob-218-20121214-Letter.of.Protest.FIFA.President|
        [72] Rajoub, Jibril. Letter to Joseph Blatter, February 27, 2013. |X-Pob-016-20130227-FIFA.P.protest.Israeli.transgressions|
        [73] Ibid.
        [74] Ibid.
        [75] Ibid.
        [76] Ibid.
        [77] Rajoub, Jibril. Letter to Joseph Blatter, February 27, 2013. |X-Pob-016-20130227-FIFA.P.protest.Israeli.transgressions|
        [78] Ibid.
        [79] Ibid.
        [80] Ibid.
        [81] Ibid.
        [82] Ibid.
        [83] Ibid.
        [84] Ibid.
        [85] Ibid.
        [86] Ibid.
        [87] Ibid.
        [88]Shalabi, Susan. Email to Primo Corvaro, September 20, 2013. |X-Ob-606-20130930-AFC U19 Qualifiers-Men_11-16.permitsd.difficulty|
        [89] Ibid.
        [90] Ibid.
        [91] Ibid.
        [92] Ibid.
        [93] Borja, David. Email to International Department of the PFA, May 13, 2011. |X-Em-20110513-David.Borja.faces.pro…pdf|
        [94] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Pascal Torres, December 3, 2012. |X-Ob-215-20121203-Iraqi.team.denied.entry.permits.to.Palestine|
        [95] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Pascal Torres, December 3, 2012. |X-Ob-215-20121203-Iraqi.team.denied.entry.permits.to.Palestine|
        [96]Ibid.
        [97] Ibid.
        [98] Ibid.
        [99] Ibid.
        [100] Ibid.
        [101] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Pascal Torres, December 3, 2012. |X-Ob-215-20121203-Iraqi.team.denied.entry.permits.to.Palestine|
        [102]Valcke, Jerome. Fax to Ori Shilo, March 8, 2013. |X-Ib-141-20130311-FIFA.Letter.2.Israeli.FA.Reg.PAL.Complaints.|
        [103] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Ko Ko Thein, May 18, 2013.|X-Em-20130520-Myanmar.players.pro….pdf|
        [104] Huong, Tran. Email to Tin Aung, May 20, 2013.|X-Em-20130520-Myanmar.players.pro….pdf|
        [105] Ibid.
        [106] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Munem Fakhouri, May 25, 2013. | X-Em-20130522-Munem.Fakhouri.problem|
        [107] Infantino, Gianni. Letter to Avi Luzon, August 13, 2013. |X-Pib-120-20130813-Platini.to.Luzon.reg.4th.waff.GR|
        [108] Ibid.
        [109] Ibid.
        [110] Ibid.
        [111] Ibid.
        [112] Infantino, Gianni. Letter to Avi Luzon, August 13, 2013. |X-Pib-120-20130813-Platini.to.Luzon.reg.4th.waff.GR|
        [113] Ibid.
        [114] Ibid.
        [115] Ibid.
        [116] Ibid.
        [117] Ibid.
        [118] Ibid.
        [119] Ibid.
        [120] Ibid.
        [121] Ibid.
        [122] Infantino, Gianni. Letter to Avi Luzon, August 13, 2013. |X-Pib-120-20130813-Platini.to.Luzon.reg.4th.waff.GR|
        [123] Ibid.
        [124] Ibid.
        [125] Ibid.
        [126] Ibid.
        [127] Ibid.
        [128] Ibid.
        [129] Ibid.
        [130] Infantino, Gianni. Letter to Avi Luzon, August 13, 2013. |X-Pib-120-20130813-Platini.to.Luzon.reg.4th.waff.GR|
        [131] Ibid.
        [132] Ibid.
        [133] Ibid.
        [134] Ibid.
        [135] Ibid.
        [136] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Primo Corvaro, September 30, 2013. |X-Ob-606-20130930-AFC U19 Qualifiers-Men_11-16.permitsd.difficulty|
        [137] Ibid.
        [138] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Primo Corvaro, September 30, 2013. |X-Ob-606-20130930-AFC U19 Qualifiers-Men_11-16.permitsd.difficulty|
        [139] Ibid.
        [140] Ibid.
        [141] Ibid.
        [142] Israel Football Association. Letter to Jerome Valcke, August 25, 2013. |X-Ib-598-20130923-Israeli.paper.for.1st.meeting|
        [143] Ibid.
        [144] Hershco, Ronen. Email to James Johnson, October 22, 2013. |X-Em-20131022-Appointment.liaison.officer.&.FIFA.coordinator|
        [145] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Montserrat Blazquez, August 13, 2013. |X-Em-20130812-Corres.1st.FIFA.TF.meeting.Montserrat|
        [146] Ibid.
        [147] Ibid.
        [148] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Montserrat Blazquez, August 30, 2013. |X-Em-20130812-Corres.1st.FIFA.TF.meeting.Montserrat|
        [149] Regenass, Thierry. Letter To Whom It May Concern, August 15, 2013. |X-Ib-482-20130815-VISA.letter.Amassi|
        [150] Ibid.
        [151] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Ronen Hershco, November 9, 2013. |X-Em-20131109-PFA.POC.officials.&. journalists.(Internal).Gaza-Ramallah|
        [152]Ibid.
        [153] Hershco, Ronen. Email to Susan Shalabi, November 10, 2013. |X-Em-20131109-PFA.POC.officials.&. journalists.(Internal).Gaza-Ramallah|
        [154] Hershco, Ronen. Email to Susan Shalabi, November 13, 2013. | X-Em-20131109-PFA.POC.officials.&. journalists.(Internal).Gaza-Ramallah|
        [155] Ibid.
        [156] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Ronen Hershco, November 9, 2013. |X-Em-20131109-PFA.POC.officials.&. journalists.(Internal).Gaza-Ramallah|
        [157]Shalabi, Susan. Email to James Johnson, November 15, 2013. |X-Em-20131114-james.johnson.to.Susan-CONFIDENTIAL-reg.mechanism|
        [158]Kattner, Markus. Fax to Rotem Kamer and Abdelmajeed Hijjeh, November 15, 2013. X-Gib-482-20131115-Movement.players.coaches.referees.&.officials
        [159] Ibid.
        [160] Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories, Report, (2014), 11. | X-Ib-021-20140113-Israel.FA.letter.Regarding.2.Evaluation.Meeting.Between.IFA.&.PFA|
        [161] Ibid.
        [162] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Ronen Hershco, November 4, 2013. |X-Ob-643-20131104-Permit.member..EDELGRASS.subcontractors_ FIFA D.O|
        [163] Palestine Football Association, 1st Report on the mechanism between the PFA& IFA, (Ramallah, Palestine: 2013), 1. | 20131123-Permit.Status.Monitor|
        [164] Ibid.
        [165] Report, 11.
        [166] 1st Report on the mechanism, 1.
        [167] Report, 11.
        [168] 1st Report on the mechanism, 1.
        [169] Report, 11.
        [170] 1st Report on the mechanism, 2.
        [171] Report, 11.
        [172] 1st Report on the mechanism, 2.
        [173] Report, 11.
        [174] 1st Report on the mechanism, 2.
        [175] Report, 11.
        [176]Palestine Football Association, 2nd Report on the mechanism between the PFA& IFA, (Ramallah, Palestine: 2014), 2.  |20140115-Permit.status.monitor|
        [177] Ibid.
        [178] 2nd Report on the mechanism, 2.
        [179] Dabdoob, Mona. Email to Mr. Tan, February 4, 2014. |X-Em-20140131-Forth.Official.Permit.AFC.Cup.2014.play.off|
        [180] 2nd Report on the mechanism, 2.
        [181] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Ronen Herschco, February 7, 2014. |X-Em-20140207-Permit.AFC.instructor.Ziad.Akubeh|
        [182] Kamer, Rotem. Letter to Markus Kattner, January 12, 2014. |X-Ib-021-20140113-Israel.FA.letter.Regarding.2.Evaluation.Meeting.Between.IFA.&.PFA|
        [183] Yonathan Mishal and Moshe Sheinman, “Rajoub wants to cut sports ties with Israel,” Ynet news, November 18, 2013. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4454864,00.html.
        [184] Palestine Football Association. Israeli impediments on Palestinian shipments, Ref: X-Ob/2011/009 (Ramallah, Palestine: May 5, 2011), 1.  ||X-Ob-009-20110115-Israeli.restrictions.on.shipments|
        [185] Israeli impediments on Palestinian shipments, 1-2. 
        [186] Israeli impediments on Palestinian shipments, 2. 
        [187] Israeli impediments on Palestinian shipments, 3. 
        [188] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Sami Makkawi June 24, 2009. |X-Em-20090815-Addidas.Shipment.to.Palestine.final.fate|
        [189]Daniela from FIFA Refereeing. Email to Susan Shalabi December 30, 2009.| X--Em-20091230-Referee.2010.shipment.|
        [190] Makkawi, Sami. Email to Susan Shalabi June 25, 2009. |X-Ib-098-20100225-Referee.Distribution.2010.Addidas.equipment|
        [191]Amstein, Eric. Letter to Sami Makkawi January 14, 2010. |X-Ib-099-201003229-FIFA Ref. Distribution 10_Letter Palestine|
        [192] Torres, Pascal. Letter to Whom it May Concern October 9, 2010. |X-Ib-093-20100322-Pascal.Torres.UEFA-letter.of.Donor.Equipment|
        [193] Israeli impediments on Palestinian shipments, 2-3. 
        [194]Nayblat, Deborah. Letter to Palestine Football Association May 30, 2014. |X-Ib-305-20101113-UEFA.shipment.MSCUS8597151PALESTINIANFOOTBALLPROVIDER057|
        [195] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Pascal Torres October 14, 2014. |X-Em-20101012-Platini.Shipment.EUFA.corres|
        [196] Hijjeh, Abdelmajeed. Letter to Deborah Nayblat November 10, 2010. |X-Gob-034-20101110-to.MSC.Israel.to.reduce.costs|
        [197] Torres, Pascal. Letter To Whom it May Concern November 9, 2010. |X-Ib-093-20100322-Pascal.Torres.UEFA-letter.of.Donor.Equipment|
        [198] Ibid.
        [199] Trengrouse, Pedro. Email to Susan Shalabi June 22, 2009. |X-Em-20090622.Pedro.Brazil.matches.FlamencoXCorinthians.corres|
        [200] Alvarez, Vera Cintia. Email to Susan Shalabi June 30, 2009. |X-Em-20090630-Vera.Brazilian.MOFA.Conc.Brazilian.match.sep|
        [201] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Pedro Trengrouse July 4, 2009. |X-Em-20090704.Ram.Stadium.drawings.4.brazilian.match|
        [202]Shalabi, Susan. Email to Pedro Trengrouse August 15, 2009. |X-Em-20090813.Brazil.match.cancelled|
        [203] Ibid.
        [204] Ibid.
        [205] Palestine Football Association, REPORT ON THE PROBLEMS FACED BY THE PALESTINIAN FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF A FRIENDLY MATCH ON THE FIFA DATE OF 17 NOVEMBER 2011, (Ramallah, Palestine: November, 2011), 1.
        [206] Ibid., 1-2.
        [207] Ibid., 2.
        [208] Ibid. , 2-3.
        [209] Ibid., 3.
        [210] Ibid.
        [211] Ibid.
        [212] Blatter, Joseph. Email to Jibril Rajoub November 19, 2010. 1|X-Pib-290-20101120-FIFA.President.on.Israeli.actions|
        [213] Ibid.
        [214] Rami Almigheri, “Remembering Mamoud, killed by an Israeli missile as he played football,” Electronic Intifada, June 22, 2012. http://electronicintifada.net/content/remembering-mamoun-killed-israeli-missile-he-played-football/11434.
        [215] Ibid.
        [216] Ibid.
        [217]Rajoub, Jibril. Letter to Joseph Blatter June 9, 2012. |X-pob-108-20120609-fifa.p.protest.against.israeli.actions|
        [218] Ibid.
        [219] Ibid.
        [220] Ibid.
        [221] Valcke, Jerome. Letter to Ori Shilo March 8, 2013. |X-Ib-141-20130311-FIFA.Letter.2.Israeli.FA.Reg.PAL.Complaints.pdf|
        [222] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Ronen Hershco February 1, 2014. |X-Em-20140131-AFC.Cup.Jordan.AFC.Official.permit|
        [223] Rajoub, Jibril. Letter to Joseph Blatter January 3, 2013. |X-Pob-002-20120104-FIFA.P.letter.Israeli.force.breaks.into.Al-Husseini.stadium|
        [224] Hershco, Ronen. Email to Susan Shalabi, December 26, 2013. |X-Em-20140100-Basel.Mahmud's.casePermits & other issues|
        [225] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Ronen Hershco, January 7, 2014. |X-Em-20140100-Basel.Mahmud's.casePermits & other issues|
        [226] Ibid.
        [227] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Ronen Herscho, February 2, 2014. |X-Em-20140202-Reg.Johar.&.Adam.Halabiyeh|
        [228] Ibid.
        [229] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Ronen Herscho, February 8, 2014. |X-Em-20140202-Reg.Johar.&.Adam.Halabiyeh|
        [230]Shalabi, Susan. Email to Ronen Hershco, February 2, 2014. |X-Em-20140202-Reg.Johar.&.Adam.Halabiyeh|
        [231] Hershco, Ronen. Email to Susan Shalabi, February 17, 2014. |X-Em-20140214-HADASA.REPORTS.ON.INJURED.PLAYERS|
        [232] Shalabi, Susan. Email to Ronen Herscho, February 8, 2014. |X-Em-20140202-Reg.Johar.&.Adam.Halabiyeh|